INADEQUATE conceptions of the evangel of God prevail. One sometimes
hears a preacher say: "I am not a Bible student; I am only an evangelist." Yet
this profound epistle deals, for the larger part, only with the evangel. One cannot be a
really good evangelist till he knows Romans. It is not enough to say: "Believe on the
Lord Jesus Christ and you shall be saved." These words were addressed to a terrified
man who was convicted that he needed salvation. When he was calmed and attentive Paul
proclaimed to him the word of the Lord, together with all who were in his house. They
believed in God and were baptized. The minimum of Paul's evangel was that Christ died for
our sins, that He was entombed, and that He was roused on the third day.
The evangel of God concerns His Son, in Whom the whole of our salvation exists
concretely. Salvation therefore is nothing less than complete conformity to Christ in His
flesh, on the cross, and in the glory. The life of Jesus may be manifest in our mortal
flesh, we were crucified with Him, we bear the likeness of His resurrection now, and these
bodies of humiliation will be transfigured and conformed to His body. Salvation means all
this and much more. Romans is a treatise on salvation. Every evangelist worthy of the name
must know this revelation.
The writer's experience with classes has shown the need of surveying the whole book and
correctly dividing it, so that the less experienced student may know the subject and the
trend of the argument. For instance, some need to be told that two sections, Romans
1:18-3:20 and 7:7-25, do not present the gospel, but show the need for it. Again, others
need to learn that chapters nine to eleven do not present the deliverance that is in
Christ Jesus. That section is written to vindicate God's present treatment of Israel and
to show the wise and good use He makes of their stumbling. Without it the secret of the
evangel could not have been revealed. Because of the need of such guidance, an analysis,
or consensus, of the whole epistle is herewith presented.
I. INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL, 1:1-15.
1. His office, God's evangel, and salutation, 1:1-7.
2. His thanksgiving, prayers, longing to see them, and readiness to pay his debt, 1:8-15.
II. THE REVELATION OF GOD'S EVANGEL, 1:16-8:39.
The THEME, is briefly stated. It is
God's power for salvation, 1:16,17.
A. SALVATION FROM PERSONAL SINS, 1:18-5:11.
The sins of the individual as
distinct from race sin are first considered.
These sins against known truth are
avoidable, provoking God's indignation.
1. The Revelation of God's
are arraigned at the bar of God, and are found to be exposed to the just wrath of God.
The gentiles have sinned against the light of creation, for which cause God gives them up
Principles of future judgment for both Jew and Greek, 2:1-16.
The critics of conduct do the things they criticize in others and are
The impenitent are hoarding up for themselves wrath in the day of wrath, 2:4,5.
Judgment will be according to deeds. 2:6-10.
The Jew will be judged through law and the gentile, by the light of moral instinct
The Jew has been false to his profession and privileges, 2:17--3:8.
He transgresses the law he teaches, 2:17-24.
Transgression invalidates his circumcision, 2:25-29.
Yet circumcision pledges certain prerogatives to the Jew, 3:1,2.
These promises are absolute and are secured by the faithfulness of God, 3:3,4.
Though God gets glory through man's sin, that fact does not excuse sin or save
sinner from God's indignation, 3:5-8.
Scripture witnesses that all are under sin, 3:9-18.
The arraigned are found excuseless, subject to an adverse verdict, and helpless, 3:19,20.
2. The Righteousness of God is
Now Manifested, 3:21-4:25.
The character of God's righteousness, 3:21-26.
Apart from law, but witnessed by it, 3:21.
Received through faith, 3:22. iii. It is for all who have sinned, 3:23.
It is gratuitously and graciously reckoned through the deliverance that is
Christ Jesus, 3:24.
Deliverance was wrought by God Who set forth Christ as a Propitiatory, 3:25.
His purpose was the twofold vindication of His personal righteousness,
of His passing over of sins in His forbearance, and in His
the sinner who believes, 3:26.
The effects of this method are:
To exclude all boasting, 3:27.
To include both Jew and gentile, 3:28-31.
This method is according to Scripture, 4:1-25.
Abraham was justified by faith, 4:1-5.
David sings of the blessedness of the acquitted, 4:6-8.
Abram was justified when in uncircumcision, and so is the father of all
The promises were made to faith and will be fulfilled by grace, 4:13-16.
Abraham's faith, the pattern of ours, 4:17-25.
3. Justification Leads to Peace
and Glory, 5:1-11.
The justified have the peace that God has made, 5:1.
They have access to a standing in grace, 5:2.
They may exult in the prospect of glory, 5:2.
Afflictions confirm the expectation, 5:3-5.
God's love guarantees the expectation, 5:5.
How God commends His love to us, 5:6-8.
Present justification will save us from wrath in the day of wrath, 5:9.
Since God conciliated the world to Himself, it is certain that those
receive the conciliation shall be kept safe in Christ's life, 5:10.
Having righteousness, peace and the expectation of glory, we are even
glorying in God our Saviour, 5:11. The matter of personal sins
been disposed of, Paul passes to the revelation of God's salvation
racial sin in all its manifestations. The words "faith" and wrath" are
B. SALVATION FROM RACIAL SINS, 5:12-8:39.
1. Adam and Christ, the
Respective Sources of Sin and Salvation, of Death and Life, 5:12-21.
Adam channels sin and death to all, 5:12-14.
Christ's work exceeds that of Adam, 5:15-17.
The grace is greater than the offense, 5:15.
Judgment came from one offense; grace deals with many offenses, 5:16.
The future reigning of the saints in life is better than the present reign of death, 5:17.
The condemnation through Adam's offense is equalled by the extension to all mankind
the justifying of life, 5:18.
As by one the many were constituted sinners, so by the obedience of the One the same
shall be constituted righteous, 5:19.
The function of law was to make the offense increase, but grace superexceeds the
increase of sin, 5:20. f. Sin's reign is in death, but Grace reigns through
for eonian life, 5:21.
2. Racial Judgment and Salvation
Applied to Individuals by Union with Christ, 6:1-11.
The reign of grace does not condone persistence in sin, 6:1-2.
Believers died to sin by baptism into Christ's death. Union with Christ by means of
involves death to sin, entombment with Him, and a walk in newness of
corresponding to His life in resurrection, 6:3,4.
We share the likeness of His death and resurrection, 6:5.
The last Adam took our old humanity to the cross. The Adam race was judged and
by crucifixion. The cross separates us from our old humanity, in order
the body should no longer function as the instrument of sin, also that we should
to be slaves of sin, 6:6.
By death we are justified from condemnation on account of the sin which remains in
Baptized into Christ, we are united with Him in the likeness of His death to sin, 6:8-10.
Even as the things revealed are true of Christ, we must reckon them true of ourselves
whom they were accomplished, 6:11.
3. Presentation of Ourselves and
Our Members to God, 6:12-23.
Though sin remains, it must not reign in our body and command our obedience, 6:12.
The sanctification of ourselves and our members deprives sin of its body and gives to
implements of righteousness, 6:13.
We are no longer slaves of sin, because we are not under law, but under grace, 6:14.
We are the slaves of the one to whom we present ourselves, whether of sin or
The two services are contrasted, 6:17-23.
4. Dying with Christ, we Died to
Law also, 7:1-25.
Only death releases from the rule of law, 7:1-3.
Saints were caused to die to law that they might serve in newness of spirit and not
the oldness of the letter (the law), 7:4-6.
Though the law is not sin, but holy and just and good, it stirs the passions of sins,
The spiritual law reveals the carnality of the old humanity. The determined effort of a
to obey law leads to the discovery of a stronger law of sin in his members,
brings Him into captivity. Rescue comes by death to law and the impartation
5. The New Life and the Law of
Sin and of Death, 8:1-14.
Nothing condemns those in Christ Jesus. Having died to sin, they are justified from it.
died to law, sin cannot bring them under condemnation, 8:1.
The law of sin and of death which is in our members is counteracted by the law
the spirit, which is the life in Christ Jesus, 8:2.
When the law was unable to condemn sin in the flesh, God condemned it by
His Son to live sinlessly in the likeness of sin's flesh, 8:3.
The Spirit of life enables those who walk in it to fulfill the just requirement of the
The contrasted character and issues of flesh and spirit, 8:5-8.
God dwells where the spirit of Christ is, 8:9.
If Christ is in one, his body is dead because of sin; but his spirit is life because of
His mortal body awaits vivification, 8:9-11.
The saint ought to put to death the practices of the body, 8:12-14.
6. The Spirit of Christ is the
Spirit of Sonship: all God's children have an allotment, 8:15-17.
7. Those who Suffer with Christ
shall be Glorified with Him. Though free from condemnation,
still suffer because of sin and death, 8:17-39.
We suffer with a groaning and travailing creation, which expects to be freed at the
of the sons of God, 8:18-22.
We groan because our body is not yet saved, 8:23-25.
We suffer spiritual infirmity, yet the spirit aids us, especially in prayer, 8:26,27.
God works all together for good to those who are called. This working includes
step from foreknowledge to glory, 8:28-30.
God is for us, giving us all things with Christ, 8:31-34.
Love gives the saints more than victory over all opponents, 8:35-39.
III. GOD'S JUSTIFICATION OF HIS WAYS WITH ISRAEL, 9:1-11:36.
The present condition of the chosen
people is in direct contrast to its advantages and promised
greatness. Yet their discomfiture
is the occasion of the revelation of the secret of the gospel
which Paul has made known.
1. Paul is pained by the unbelief of his fleshly kin, who despite their present
inalienable blessings and a
glorious destiny, 9:1-5.
2. Israel's Rejection is not Inconsistent with God's Choice of the Nation, nor with
a. God makes choices within the
election, choosing Isaac and not Ishmael, Jacob
not Esau, 9:6-13.
b. He chooses in absolute mercy,
c. The Creator's intention is not
d. Scripture foretold His alternate
calling out of Jews and out of the nations, 9:24-29.
3. What Occasioned Israel's Rejection, 9:30-10:15.
a. Seeking righteousness by works,
they stumbled over the Righteous One, 9:30-33.
b. Though they are zealous for God,
they are so ignorant of His righteousness
they do not recognize that it is consummated in Christ, 10:1-4.
c. Righteousness by faith is near
and easy, 10:5-10.
d. It is available for Jew and
Greek alike, 10:11-13.
e. Heralding makes faith possible,
4. Israel Rejected the Word of God, 10:16-21.
a. They would not believe the good
tidings declared to them, 10:16,17.
b. The witness to them is
threefold: Nature's universal witness, 10:18.
warning of Moses, 10:19. The warning of Isaiah, 10:19-21.
5. Israel's Rejection is Only Partial and Temporary, 11:1-32.
a. There is even now, as always, a
remnant according to God's gracious choice.
rest have a spirit of stupor, 11:1-10.
b. Israel's offense is salvation
for the nations. If God brings blessing out of their
how much more will their restoration bring? 11:11,12.
c. Paul addresses the nations,
His ministry is for Israel's sake, 11:13,14.
Their casting away is the conciliation of the world, but their restoration
bless the world still more, 11:15.
The figure of the olive tree: Some natural boughs remain. Both they and
wild olive boughs maintain their position by faith, 11:16-24.
The secret of the duration of Israel's partial blindness, 11:25.
Israel's salvation is assured, 11:26,27.
Present status of Jew and gentile, 11:28-32.
6. An Ascription of Glory to God, 11:33-36.
IV. SALVATION AS TRANSFORMATION OF THE SAINT, 12:1-15:13.
1. The Appeal for a Living Sacrifice, or the Sanctification of the Body and Mind,
2. The Saint in the Assembly of Saints, 12:3-8.
i. Humility the prime grace, 12:3.
ii. The figure of the body, 12:4,5.
iii. The proper use of the graces,
3. The Walk in Love, 12:9-21. i. Between the saints love is to be sincere, abounding in
good works and lowliness, 12:9-17.
ii. Toward enemies love is peaceful, forbearing,
vanquishing evil with good,
4. The Saint's Relation to the State: Submission to authorities as God's ministers, to
and tribute and taxes are due,
5. The Saint owes Love to All, 13:8-10.
6. Incentive to Walk as in the Day: Our salvation is nearer, 13:11-14.
7. The Strong ought to Help the Weak, 14:1-15:13.
i. Mutual forbearance in matters of
ii. Toleration as to observance of
iii. Do not judge, for God shall
iv. Do not be a stumbling block to
the weak, but seek peace and edification, 14:13-21.
v. Faith is the test of what is
vi. The example of Christ, 15:1-4.
vii. Receive one another, 15:5-7.
viii. Believers of the Circumcision
and of the nations should receive one another, 15:8-13.
V. PERSONAL INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES 15:14-16:24.
1. Paul is God's minister for the gentiles, 15:14-21.
2. His missionary program, 15:22-29.
3. He requests the cooperation of their prayers, 15:30-33.
4. Phoebe is commended to the saints, 16:1,2.
5. Saints are saluted personally by name, 16:3-16.
6. A warning against dissensions, 16:17-20.
7. Salutations from his fellow-workers, 16:21-24.
VI. THE FINAL DOXOLOGY, 16:25-27.
1. Established in accord with" my gospel."
2. And the secret of the gospel manifested now.